Login or Register New Account

Suggested Reading

1. Rehearsal Rooms

Struggling to improve the acoustics in your band room? Check out how the Medan Band did it.

2. Concerned about playing swing music properly?

Check out my guidelines

3. Ear training exercises for bands

Unlike piano players, ear training is essential for wind band performers. But how many band directors bother to give their bands suitable exercises?

4. Intonation problems

While tuning is simple act of adjusting a length of tubing on a wind instrument (often by reference to a single note), intonation is an ongoing process in which a player strives to match the pitch of others in the ensemble during performance. 

5. “Blowing” a wind instrument

A common misconception among wind players is to believe that the air moves through the instrument in order to produce the sound. This is simply not true. 

6. Conducting – suggestions for home practice

The best way for a conductor to improve is in front of a live ensemble. The unfortunate reality, however, is that this is not always possible. Aspiring conductors therefore have little choice but to find other ways of honing their skills.

 

Coda (Sections 40-41)

Sections 40-41 echo the material found in the introduction.  There are some important differences, however.  For one thing, section 40 is longer (eight bars instead of six) and there are powerful pedal tones in the bass.  Like the introduction, section 41 is built upon an Em7b5 chord resolving on A.  Rather than being in A minor however, the fact that the Bb is also present in the last bar suggests that the music ends in the Phrygian mode.  This impression is reinforced by the absence of an F# or G# in the upward scalic passage in the woodwinds (last bar). 

The sustained chord in the brasses (section 41) needs to be watched carefully to ensure that the crescendo does not come too early. This would ruin the effect

 

Recapitulation (Sections 30-39)

First Subject
Interlude
Second Subject
First Subject Again!


First subject

The composer wastes no time launching into the first subject.  As is usual in sonata form, it appears in the original tonic (A).  Note the light staccato bass line.  It thus has more in common with section 3 than section 4.


Interlude

Section 32 forms the transition between the first and second subject.  Here we hear the little theme that first appeared in the latter half of the first subject in the exposition.


Second subject

Section 33 begins with an important modulation.  Using the by now familiar bII-I jazz sequence (in this case the chords of Bb and A major) the key changes and the second subject begins (played by the saxophones once again).  Note that it is in A major, not E major as in the exposition.  This is a fairly standard practice in sonata form.  We also have Gorb’s usual interlude before the melody returns in the flutes and clarinets (section 35).

Note the interrupted cadence at the allargando.  By this time the music has moved into B minor.  The music here is probably more difficult to play than it looks.  The tuba part (concert A and B) should come through clearly to enhance the cadential feel. 

In section 37 we are reminded once more of the second subject by the dying sounds of the stopped horns.

This passage is built over a Bmajor7b5 (add 9) chord.  A beautifully sad sound!  Make sure all notes can be heard.  The switch from C to D in the first trombones (which appears just after the poco rit.) removes the ninth and gives the chord a sort of resolution.  It is almost as if some of the sadness and melancholy engendered by the chord has been removed.  This prepares us psychologically for the more exciting music that is to come.


First subject again!

At the a tempo, the rhythm is reminiscent of the first subject.  This impression is reinforced by the accompaniment in the woodwinds.  The music appears to be in the Phrygian mode with A as the tonic.  Notice how parts are added and the excitement builds right up to bar 358 before the composer greets us with complete silence – something totally unexpected!  I think we should lengthen this silence a little for dramatic effect. 

This is followed by a sort of jazz cadential formula (bII-bV-bI or Bb-Eb-Ab) in whole and half notes which gives the impression of a key change without actually making one (A is still the tonic):

Notice the different treatment of the whole notes (trumpets and upper trombones) and the half notes (lower trombones, tenor tuba and tuba). The whole notes are to be performed tenuto (played full value or even longer), while the half notes are accented. In any event, the section should not be rushed.

We are then thrown (almost literally!) into the blazing power of the first subject.  This should be full of energy and highly rhythmical, even more than it was at the beginning when the first subject was introduced.  Section 39 (the last part of the development section) is actually based on an extended tonic seventh chord (A7).  The tonic seventh has long been a favourite of jazz pianists at the final cadence.  Note how the upper woodwinds keep returning to the concert G.  This is the note that gives the chord its character.  At a distance of nearly four octaves, the G in the upper woodwinds is the 15th overtone of the fundamental (in this case A in the bass).

Development: Sections (14-28)

 

Variation I
Interlude I
Variation II
Interlude II
Variation III
Variation IV
Variation V

Like the development sections of other works in Sonata form, this section explores a variety of keys, many quite remote from the tonic A.  However, the development section is also unusual in a number of ways.  For one thing, it begins with a truncated (and slightly amended) version of the opening bars, suggesting that the composer is announcing the beginning of the recapitulation.


Variation I

This variation begins at section 15.  It is also unusual in that, instead of being some variation of the first subject, the composer presents us with material first introduced at the end of the first subject, just before the bridge to the second subject. This is in concert C. 

I suggest that the trombones be encouraged here to play in a bold, brazen style.


Interlude I

Yet another interlude follows, this time heralded by the trumpets (section 16) in concert F.  These trumpet passages should thus be played in a bold, declamatory style.


Variation II

At section 17, the composer finally gets around to addressing the first subject.  But instead of developing the melody, he takes the accompaniment to it (played by the upper woodwinds) and introduces entirely new material in the brasses (a descending bass passage).  This material appears first in F major, then in concert Ab.  It fades off in a series of scalic woodwind passages in Bb major. 

Notice the cuivre section in the horns in section 18. How many bands in Singapore will get this right?

The “+” sign in the score indicates that the hand should be used to stop the sound, while cuivre requires an exaggerated, brassy effect. This is obtained by causing exaggerated vibration of the metal though a combination of lip tension and hand-stopping. Played properly, it can be quite effective!


Interlude II

Section 19 presents us with another fanfare-like trumpet passage, this time drawn out into more extended chords.  These chords are difficult to identify, but the key appears to be concert E major.  Once again, a declamatory style of playing is required from the trumpets.  After all, they are announcing the end of one variation and the beginning of another.


Variation III

Sections 20-22 suggest new variations on the first subject, this time using elements of the lower brass melody.  The key in sections 20-21 is concert Db major.  In section 22, the key changes suddenly to concert G major. Modulation upwards by an augmented fourth is a common gambit in jazz.  In the circle of fifths, G is directly opposite Db.


Variation IV

At section 23 (especially the first half of the section) everything gets really complicated.  The descending bass line (when it occurs) is vaguely reminiscent of the material used in section 17.  The melodic line, if it can be called that, is played by the horns.  It proceeds upwards by step, contrasting with the bass and recalling the more connected, smoother line of the second subject.  The metre is in triple time (3/4). However, the two dotted crotchets in the bar played by the horns suggest a duple feel.

This is contrasted with running quavers in the saxophone and triplet scalic passages in the woodwinds. It is as if each section is battling for rhythmic control. This is a place where the band could easily come apart. I suggest it be conducted in one, and that the horns rather than the trombones and tubas lead the band.  

Section 23 is in Ab, section 24 is in Gb.  Notice the extended Db pedal in the lower woodwinds, tubas and piano in section 24.  This pedal must be heard, since it functions as a dominant pedal, increasing the tension.  Interestingly, this chord does not seem to resolve on the tonic (Gb), but moves instead to II#3 (Ab), then back to Db before sliding down a semitone into C7 at the beginning of section 25.  This semitone slide is not unusual in jazz.


Variation V

Section 25 introduces yet another variation.  There is an abrupt change of key (to concert F) and a “walking bass” is introduced that has some similarity to the bass accompaniment of the first subject in the exposition (section 4).  This time, however, the scoring suggests a heavier feel. How should the double bass and tuba parts allocated at section 25 and 26?  I suggest one tuba on the double bass line and the rest play the tuba part as written.  Similarly, there should only be one tuba covering the double bass line in section 4 and 7.

Much of section 25 is built upon a C7 chord (outlined by the piano and string bass), implying a modulation to F major.  Then, just before section 26, C7 resolves on A7 (A minor would have been more usual), then D, the dominant chord of G major.  Section 26 appears to be in the key of G.  However, the absence of a G major chord suggests it is probably better understood as being in the Mixolydian mode with D as the tonic. The main chords in the section are A7 and D7.  Section 27, which appears at first sight to be in E major, is similarly constructed to avoid the E major chord.  I see this as being based on the Mixolydian mode with the tonic on B.

When the E major chord finally shows up, it comes in the form of series of quick (quarter note) imperfect cadences (I-V) in section 28.  These suggest a rest or pause in the music.  This is followed by a bII7-I sequence just before section 29 – a typical jazz ending. 

Bridge (Section 29)

This section is the easiest to recognize.  It consists of a drum solo, with a brief pause at the end announcing the beginning of the recapitulation.

Bridge: Sections 11-13

BBeginning at section 11, the bridge between the exposition and the development presents us with an interesting combination of themes, reminding us of what has gone before (subjects one and two) and giving us more hints about what is to come (remember that little theme buried at the end of the first subject – bars 43-48?).  An extract from the first subject (slightly amended) is played briefly by the tubas and lower woodwinds in E minor (the original was based on a tonic A, remember?).  This is followed immediately by the second subject, played this time by the oboes, first clarinets and (later) the horns in its original key (E major). 

Section 12 introduces yet another interlude built on a B major seventh -- the “tear jerker” chord we first heard at the end of the second subject.  In performance, I think that the major seventh (in this case A# in the piccolo, B# in the clarinets and so on) should be similarly emphasized. Sustained Bs in the lower woodwinds and (eventually) the horns prepare us for the key of B minor.  Section 13 returns to that mysterious theme we heard briefly twice before (once at the end of the first subject and once in the bridge).  Its incarnation here begins with the flutes at bar 110 and is echoed immediately afterwards by the oboe and then the clarinets and bassoon, producing a sort of cascade effect:

Soon afterwards, however, the music builds to a crescendo and it seems that something is really going to happen.   The composer, however, cuts the theme short once again with a headlong rush into the development section.

Latest Videos

View Video
4016 Views
Rated 3
Bruce Gale
View Video
12622 Views
Rated 3
Bruce Gale
View Video
3951 Views
Rated 3
Bruce Gale
View Video
3727 Views
Rated 3
Bruce Gale
View Video
6372 Views
Rated 3
Bruce Gale
View Video
4884 Views
Rated 3
Bruce Gale
View Video
7111 Views
Rated 3
Bruce Gale
View Video
7589 Views
Rated 3
Bruce Gale
View Video
7424 Views
Rated 3
Bruce Gale
View Video
12057 Views
Rated 3
Bruce Gale